Gum Infection

The supporting tissues of teeth such as gums, alveolar bone, and your periodontal ligaments are known as the periodontium and the branch of dentistry that deals with these structures is called periodontics.

Swollen gums, bleeding gums, or both are early indications of bacterial infection in your gums. When left unnoticed, then it spreads, tearing down the structures that are supporting your teeth in your jawbone and ultimately a point comes where your teeth are so loose that they may have to be removed. Bacteria found in dental plaque are the root cause for periodontal diseases. If you do not practice regular oral hygiene and if you do not visit your dentist regularly then plaque will build up on your teeth.

Gum Infections

The most common form of gum infection is pyorrhea in which the supporting ligaments and the bones attached to the teeth are inflamed due to bacterial infection. It is mostly characterized by visible changes like shiny and blood red appearance of the gums and profuse bleeding even while brushing and swelling of the gums. Mostly pyorrhea is caused by improper brushing and poor oral hygiene.

Treatments for pyorrhea are mostly non- surgical, but in extreme cases surgery is inevitable.

Non-surgical methods

When detected in early stages itself, most gum diseases can be treated by methods like root planning and scaling which are non- surgical. That is scaling and root planning.

Surgical methods

If nonsurgical therapy becomes unsuccessful, periodontal surgery is the only way to stop progressive bone loss and regenerate lost bone where possible the different types of approaches are:

  • open flap debridement

  • osseous surgery

  • guided tissue regeneration

  • Bone grafting.

The goal of periodontal surgery is access for definitive calculus removal and surgical management of bony irregularities which have resulted from the disease process to reduce pockets as much as possible. Surgically treated cases often have fewer breakdowns over time. It is necessary to have a regular post-treatment maintenance regimen, to bring further tooth loss to a halt.

Once successful periodontal treatment has been completed, a period of periodontal maintenance is required. Regular checkups and detailed cleanings every three months are to be properly administered. Usually, periodontal disease exists due to poor plaque control; therefore periodontal recurrence is probable if the brushing techniques are not modified.